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五金冲压车间真是不简单,存在这么多特点

五金冲压车间真是不简单,存在这么多特点

作者:五金冲压编辑    来源:本站原创    发布时间:2018-04-15T23:45:47    浏览量:
五(wu)金冲压(ya)(ya)车(che)(che)(che)(che)间(jian)(jian)里面加工(gong)(gong)出(chu)来的五(wu)金冲压(ya)(ya)件是汽(qi)车(che)(che)(che)(che)生(sheng)产(chan)上必不可少的一(yi)部分。汽(qi)车(che)(che)(che)(che)生(sheng)产(chan)的四大工(gong)(gong)艺(yi)中就以(yi)冲压(ya)(ya)工(gong)(gong)艺(yi)为首(shou),所以(yi)后面车(che)(che)(che)(che)身(shen)、涂装(zhuang)、总装(zhuang)三个工(gong)(gong)艺(yi)车(che)(che)(che)(che)间(jian)(jian)的生(sheng)产(chan)直(zhi)接受(shou)到冲压(ya)(ya)车(che)(che)(che)(che)间(jian)(jian)的影响。但是冲压(ya)(ya)车(che)(che)(che)(che)间(jian)(jian)与其他工(gong)(gong)艺(yi)车(che)(che)(che)(che)间(jian)(jian)不同的是,冲压(ya)(ya)车(che)(che)(che)(che)间(jian)(jian)有(you)工(gong)(gong)艺(yi)水平要求(qiu)高、工(gong)(gong)艺(yi)复(fu)杂系数大、投资规(gui)模大、生(sheng)产(chan)设备多、制造周期长等特(te)(te)点。冲压(ya)(ya)车(che)(che)(che)(che)间(jian)(jian)存(cun)在的一(yi)些特(te)(te)点有(you):
1,冲压车间生产(chan)线布局
冲(chong)(chong)(chong)压(ya)(ya)车(che)间根(gen)(gen)据整个工(gong)(gong)厂(chang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)生(sheng)产(chan)(chan)(chan)能力,安排相(xiang)(xiang)应的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)生(sheng)产(chan)(chan)(chan)线(xian)(xian)。由(you)于产(chan)(chan)(chan)品(pin)所(suo)需(xu)冲(chong)(chong)(chong)压(ya)(ya)件(jian)(jian)不(bu)(bu)同(tong),五(wu)金(jin)(jin)冲(chong)(chong)(chong)压(ya)(ya)件(jian)(jian)所(suo)需(xu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)序(xu)数也(ye)存在差(cha)异,每(mei)(mei)条(tiao)(tiao)冲(chong)(chong)(chong)压(ya)(ya)线(xian)(xian)一(yi)(yi)般(ban)由(you)台(tai)(tai)冲(chong)(chong)(chong)压(ya)(ya)机组(zu)成(cheng)。冲(chong)(chong)(chong)压(ya)(ya)线(xian)(xian)根(gen)(gen)据五(wu)金(jin)(jin)冲(chong)(chong)(chong)压(ya)(ya)件(jian)(jian)生(sheng)产(chan)(chan)(chan)工(gong)(gong)艺(yi)(yi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)不(bu)(bu)同(tong)可(ke)以分(fen)为(wei)不(bu)(bu)同(tong)吨(dun)(dun)(dun)位(wei)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)冲(chong)(chong)(chong)压(ya)(ya)线(xian)(xian),一(yi)(yi)般(ban)情况(kuang)下(xia),每(mei)(mei)条(tiao)(tiao)生(sheng)产(chan)(chan)(chan)线(xian)(xian)要(yao)(yao)根(gen)(gen)据冲(chong)(chong)(chong)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)吨(dun)(dun)(dun)位(wei)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)不(bu)(bu)同(tong)来生(sheng)产(chan)(chan)(chan)不(bu)(bu)同(tong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)五(wu)金(jin)(jin)冲(chong)(chong)(chong)压(ya)(ya)件(jian)(jian),而且这些五(wu)金(jin)(jin)冲(chong)(chong)(chong)压(ya)(ya)件(jian)(jian)都必须适合在该生(sheng)产(chan)(chan)(chan)线(xian)(xian)上(shang)(shang)进行(xing)生(sheng)产(chan)(chan)(chan)。因为(wei)每(mei)(mei)条(tiao)(tiao)冲(chong)(chong)(chong)压(ya)(ya)生(sheng)产(chan)(chan)(chan)线(xian)(xian)上(shang)(shang)要(yao)(yao)生(sheng)产(chan)(chan)(chan)几(ji)种不(bu)(bu)同(tong)类(lei)别的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)艺(yi)(yi),而每(mei)(mei)种工(gong)(gong)艺(yi)(yi)所(suo)需(xu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)冲(chong)(chong)(chong)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)吨(dun)(dun)(dun)位(wei)又不(bu)(bu)相(xiang)(xiang)同(tong),所(suo)以每(mei)(mei)条(tiao)(tiao)生(sheng)产(chan)(chan)(chan)线(xian)(xian)上(shang)(shang)要(yao)(yao)分(fen)配不(bu)(bu)同(tong)吨(dun)(dun)(dun)位(wei)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)冲(chong)(chong)(chong)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)。例如,五(wu)金(jin)(jin)冲(chong)(chong)(chong)压(ya)(ya)件(jian)(jian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)第(di)一(yi)(yi)道拉深(shen)工(gong)(gong)序(xu)需(xu)要(yao)(yao)吨(dun)(dun)(dun)位(wei)相(xiang)(xiang)对(dui)(dui)较(jiao)大(da)(da)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)冲(chong)(chong)(chong)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang),而翻(fan)边、冲(chong)(chong)(chong)孔(kong)等(deng)工(gong)(gong)序(xu)需(xu)要(yao)(yao)吨(dun)(dun)(dun)位(wei)相(xiang)(xiang)对(dui)(dui)较(jiao)小(xiao)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)冲(chong)(chong)(chong)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)。所(suo)以,一(yi)(yi)般(ban)情况(kuang)下(xia),一(yi)(yi)条(tiao)(tiao)生(sheng)产(chan)(chan)(chan)线(xian)(xian)上(shang)(shang)会有两台(tai)(tai)吨(dun)(dun)(dun)位(wei)相(xiang)(xiang)对(dui)(dui)较(jiao)大(da)(da)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)冲(chong)(chong)(chong)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)来进行(xing)拉深(shen)等(deng)工(gong)(gong)作,而剩余几(ji)个工(gong)(gong)序(xu)则需(xu)要(yao)(yao)几(ji)台(tai)(tai)吨(dun)(dun)(dun)位(wei)相(xiang)(xiang)对(dui)(dui)较(jiao)小(xiao)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)冲(chong)(chong)(chong)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)。这样既能满足(zu)生(sheng)产(chan)(chan)(chan)加工(gong)(gong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)艺(yi)(yi)要(yao)(yao)求,又充(chong)分(fen)利用了设备资源,减少了不(bu)(bu)必要(yao)(yao)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)浪费。
2,五金冲压件(jian)工艺复杂
车(che)身车(che)间需(xu)要的(de)(de)(de)各类(lei)五(wu)金冲(chong)(chong)压(ya)件(jian),除部(bu)分外购的(de)(de)(de)半成品外,都是(shi)由冲(chong)(chong)压(ya)车(che)间进(jin)行(xing)生(sheng)产(chan)(chan)(chan)的(de)(de)(de)。每一个五(wu)金冲(chong)(chong)压(ya)件(jian)的(de)(de)(de)生(sheng)产(chan)(chan)(chan)一般(ban)要经过(guo)道工(gong)序(xu)(xu)的(de)(de)(de)加工(gong),主要的(de)(de)(de)生(sheng)产(chan)(chan)(chan)工(gong)序(xu)(xu)有开卷落料、拉伸、整形(xing)(xing)、切边、冲(chong)(chong)孔、翻边等。其中(zhong),开卷落料是(shi)在(zai)进(jin)行(xing)冲(chong)(chong)压(ya)生(sheng)产(chan)(chan)(chan)之(zhi)前将板料放在(zai)落料机上,将其加工(gong)为(wei)适合冲(chong)(chong)压(ya)生(sheng)产(chan)(chan)(chan)的(de)(de)(de)几何形(xing)(xing)状。不(bu)同的(de)(de)(de)冲(chong)(chong)压(ya)件(jian)需(xu)要不(bu)同的(de)(de)(de)生(sheng)产(chan)(chan)(chan)工(gong)序(xu)(xu),而不(bu)同的(de)(de)(de)生(sheng)产(chan)(chan)(chan)工(gong)序(xu)(xu)则需(xu)要更(geng)换不(bu)同的(de)(de)(de)模(mo)具进(jin)行(xing)加工(gong)。由于每个五(wu)金冲(chong)(chong)压(ya)件(jian)都有固定的(de)(de)(de)生(sheng)产(chan)(chan)(chan)工(gong)艺(yi)路(lu)线,所以生(sheng)产(chan)(chan)(chan)五(wu)金冲(chong)(chong)压(ya)件(jian)复(fu)杂(za)的(de)(de)(de)工(gong)艺(yi)路(lu)线导致了安排生(sheng)产(chan)(chan)(chan)的(de)(de)(de)难度。
3,两端(duan)同时进行的生产线
根据冲压线的(de)生(sheng)产工艺要求,在为每(mei)道工序(xu)安(an)排(pai)不同吨位的(de)冲床时,一般按照从两端(duan)到中(zhong)间(jian)分别安(an)排(pai)高(gao)中(zhong)低吨位的(de)顺序(xu)布局。这样双向生(sheng)产就能大(da)大(da)提高(gao)冲压车间(jian)的(de)生(sheng)产效(xiao)率和冲床的(de)利(li)用率,从而(er)降低生(sheng)产成本。成本的(de)一个巨大(da)的(de)浪费。
4,分批(pi)轮番生产
冲压车间在生产五金冲压件时,不是一次只生产一种产品,也不是一次将本周期内计划生产的冲压件全部生产完,而是在考虑生产换模时间、板材切割数量以及生产经济性的基础上,采用分批轮番生产。分批轮番生产是指将生产计划周期内安排生产的五金冲压件按照车身车间的需求分为若干批次,每一批次一天最多生产一批,最终完成计划周期内的数量。分批轮番生产的优点是既不会使单批五金冲压件的生产时间过长,影响其他五金冲压件的生产,继而导致下游车间的使用,又能减少生产成本。
冲压车间加工
5,生产批量的变化约束(shu)
冲压车(che)间(jian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)(chan)计划是(shi)由车(che)身车(che)间(jian)确(que)(que)(que)定需(xu)(xu)要的(de)(de)(de)(de)冲压件(jian)(jian)种类、数(shu)量(liang)以及该冲压件(jian)(jian)在(zai)冲压车(che)间(jian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)库存(cun)情况决定的(de)(de)(de)(de)。但是(shi)在(zai)五金冲压件(jian)(jian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)(chan)过程中,会(hui)(hui)存(cun)在(zai)许多不确(que)(que)(que)定的(de)(de)(de)(de)因素,如原(yuan)材(cai)料短缺、车(che)身车(che)间(jian)需(xu)(xu)求(qiu)发生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)变化(hua)(hua)、冲床、模(mo)具等出现故障等,使(shi)得生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)(chan)批量(liang)发生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)变化(hua)(hua)。但是(shi)考(kao)虑到生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)(chan)批量(liang)太(tai)小会(hui)(hui)导(dao)致换模(mo)次数(shu)增加,而生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)(chan)批量(liang)太(tai)大会(hui)(hui)导(dao)致成品件(jian)(jian)库存(cun)堆积,这都会(hui)(hui)使(shi)得生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)(chan)成本增加,所以要给生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)(chan)批量(liang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)变化(hua)(hua)确(que)(que)(que)定一个较为合(he)理(li)的(de)(de)(de)(de)范围。
6,设备(bei)能力约(yue)束
由于(yu)五金冲(chong)压件的生产工艺各不相(xiang)同(tong),而且每个生产工艺所需的冲(chong)床的吨位也不相(xiang)同(tong),所以在生产加工时必须要(yao)做到工件的工序在合(he)适的机床上进行加工。
7,有(you)运(yun)输(shu)时间的柔(rou)性生(sheng)产
冲(chong)(chong)(chong)压(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)车(che)间(jian)进(jin)(jin)行生产(chan)(chan)时(shi)(shi),五(wu)(wu)金冲(chong)(chong)(chong)压(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)件(jian)从(cong)第一道(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序上(shang)线,一直到(dao)最后(hou)一道(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)完成才能使五(wu)(wu)金冲(chong)(chong)(chong)压(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)件(jian)下(xia)线,将(jiang)(jiang)质量合格的(de)(de)成品(pin)件(jian)放入仓库(ku)。当五(wu)(wu)金冲(chong)(chong)(chong)压(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)件(jian)的(de)(de)某道(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序在(zai)(zai)(zai)(zai)冲(chong)(chong)(chong)床(chuang)上(shang)进(jin)(jin)行冲(chong)(chong)(chong)压(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)后(hou),如(ru)果下(xia)道(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序的(de)(de)生产(chan)(chan)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺不(bu)发(fa)生变化(hua),则(ze)仍(reng)在(zai)(zai)(zai)(zai)该压(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)力机(ji)上(shang)进(jin)(jin)行加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong),此时(shi)(shi)将(jiang)(jiang)完成第一道(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序的(de)(de)半成品(pin)在(zai)(zai)(zai)(zai)该冲(chong)(chong)(chong)床(chuang)上(shang)进(jin)(jin)行第二(er)道(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序,不(bu)存在(zai)(zai)(zai)(zai)运(yun)(yun)输(shu)(shu)时(shi)(shi)间(jian)。如(ru)果下(xia)道(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序的(de)(de)生产(chan)(chan)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺发(fa)生变化(hua),则(ze)需要将(jiang)(jiang)五(wu)(wu)金冲(chong)(chong)(chong)压(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)件(jian)转移(yi)到(dao)下(xia)一台冲(chong)(chong)(chong)床(chuang)上(shang)进(jin)(jin)行加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong),或者放在(zai)(zai)(zai)(zai)传输(shu)(shu)带上(shang)等待加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)。由(you)(you)于两(liang)道(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序之间(jian)存在(zai)(zai)(zai)(zai)距(ju)离,所以就(jiu)会产(chan)(chan)生运(yun)(yun)输(shu)(shu)时(shi)(shi)间(jian),而且运(yun)(yun)输(shu)(shu)时(shi)(shi)间(jian)是由(you)(you)两(liang)道(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序间(jian)的(de)(de)距(ju)离决定的(de)(de)。所以,在(zai)(zai)(zai)(zai)生产(chan)(chan)时(shi)(shi)需要的(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序越多(duo),所占用的(de)(de)运(yun)(yun)输(shu)(shu)时(shi)(shi)间(jian)就(jiu)越长。而运(yun)(yun)输(shu)(shu)时(shi)(shi)间(jian)却比冲(chong)(chong)(chong)压(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)时(shi)(shi)间(jian)大的(de)(de)多(duo),所以不(bu)能忽略生产(chan)(chan)过程中的(de)(de)运(yun)(yun)输(shu)(shu)转移(yi)时(shi)(shi)间(jian)。
综上所述(shu),冲压车(che)(che)(che)间(jian)(jian)存在的(de)这些特点导(dao)致了(le)它的(de)生(sheng)产(chan)节(jie)拍不能与其(qi)他三大(da)工艺车(che)(che)(che)间(jian)(jian)保持一致。虽(sui)然(ran)车(che)(che)(che)身车(che)(che)(che)间(jian)(jian)提(ti)出生(sheng)产(chan)要求,但冲压车(che)(che)(che)间(jian)(jian)仍需根据自身条件制定(ding)生(sheng)产(chan)计划。这使得冲压车(che)(che)(che)间(jian)(jian)的(de)生(sheng)产(chan)计划和(he)生(sheng)产(chan)调度更加(jia)困难。
 

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