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五金冲压车间真是不简单,存在这么多特点

五金冲压车间真是不简单,存在这么多特点

作者:五金冲压编辑    来源:本站原创    发布时间:2018-04-15T23:45:47    浏览量:
五金(jin)冲(chong)压(ya)(ya)车(che)(che)(che)(che)间(jian)(jian)里面加工(gong)(gong)出来的五金(jin)冲(chong)压(ya)(ya)件是(shi)汽车(che)(che)(che)(che)生(sheng)产(chan)上必不(bu)可少(shao)的一(yi)部分(fen)。汽车(che)(che)(che)(che)生(sheng)产(chan)的四大工(gong)(gong)艺(yi)(yi)(yi)中就(jiu)以(yi)冲(chong)压(ya)(ya)工(gong)(gong)艺(yi)(yi)(yi)为首,所以(yi)后面车(che)(che)(che)(che)身、涂(tu)装、总装三个工(gong)(gong)艺(yi)(yi)(yi)车(che)(che)(che)(che)间(jian)(jian)的生(sheng)产(chan)直接受到冲(chong)压(ya)(ya)车(che)(che)(che)(che)间(jian)(jian)的影响(xiang)。但是(shi)冲(chong)压(ya)(ya)车(che)(che)(che)(che)间(jian)(jian)与其他工(gong)(gong)艺(yi)(yi)(yi)车(che)(che)(che)(che)间(jian)(jian)不(bu)同的是(shi),冲(chong)压(ya)(ya)车(che)(che)(che)(che)间(jian)(jian)有(you)(you)工(gong)(gong)艺(yi)(yi)(yi)水平要求(qiu)高、工(gong)(gong)艺(yi)(yi)(yi)复杂系数(shu)大、投资规模大、生(sheng)产(chan)设备多(duo)、制造(zao)周(zhou)期长等(deng)特点。冲(chong)压(ya)(ya)车(che)(che)(che)(che)间(jian)(jian)存在的一(yi)些特点有(you)(you):
1,冲压车间(jian)生产(chan)线布局
冲(chong)(chong)(chong)压(ya)(ya)车间根据(ju)整个(ge)工(gong)厂的(de)(de)(de)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)(chan)能力(li),安排相(xiang)应的(de)(de)(de)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)(chan)线(xian)(xian)(xian)。由于产(chan)(chan)品所需(xu)冲(chong)(chong)(chong)压(ya)(ya)件(jian)不(bu)(bu)(bu)同,五(wu)(wu)金(jin)(jin)(jin)冲(chong)(chong)(chong)压(ya)(ya)件(jian)所需(xu)的(de)(de)(de)工(gong)序数也(ye)存在(zai)差(cha)异,每(mei)条冲(chong)(chong)(chong)压(ya)(ya)线(xian)(xian)(xian)一(yi)(yi)般由台冲(chong)(chong)(chong)压(ya)(ya)机组成。冲(chong)(chong)(chong)压(ya)(ya)线(xian)(xian)(xian)根据(ju)五(wu)(wu)金(jin)(jin)(jin)冲(chong)(chong)(chong)压(ya)(ya)件(jian)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)(chan)工(gong)艺(yi)的(de)(de)(de)不(bu)(bu)(bu)同可(ke)以(yi)分为不(bu)(bu)(bu)同吨位(wei)(wei)(wei)的(de)(de)(de)冲(chong)(chong)(chong)压(ya)(ya)线(xian)(xian)(xian),一(yi)(yi)般情(qing)况下(xia),每(mei)条生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)(chan)线(xian)(xian)(xian)要(yao)(yao)(yao)根据(ju)冲(chong)(chong)(chong)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)吨位(wei)(wei)(wei)的(de)(de)(de)不(bu)(bu)(bu)同来生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)(chan)不(bu)(bu)(bu)同的(de)(de)(de)五(wu)(wu)金(jin)(jin)(jin)冲(chong)(chong)(chong)压(ya)(ya)件(jian),而且(qie)这些五(wu)(wu)金(jin)(jin)(jin)冲(chong)(chong)(chong)压(ya)(ya)件(jian)都(dou)必(bi)(bi)须适合在(zai)该生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)(chan)线(xian)(xian)(xian)上进行生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)(chan)。因为每(mei)条冲(chong)(chong)(chong)压(ya)(ya)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)(chan)线(xian)(xian)(xian)上要(yao)(yao)(yao)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)(chan)几种不(bu)(bu)(bu)同类别的(de)(de)(de)工(gong)艺(yi),而每(mei)种工(gong)艺(yi)所需(xu)的(de)(de)(de)冲(chong)(chong)(chong)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)吨位(wei)(wei)(wei)又不(bu)(bu)(bu)相(xiang)同,所以(yi)每(mei)条生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)(chan)线(xian)(xian)(xian)上要(yao)(yao)(yao)分配不(bu)(bu)(bu)同吨位(wei)(wei)(wei)的(de)(de)(de)冲(chong)(chong)(chong)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)。例如,五(wu)(wu)金(jin)(jin)(jin)冲(chong)(chong)(chong)压(ya)(ya)件(jian)的(de)(de)(de)第一(yi)(yi)道拉深工(gong)序需(xu)要(yao)(yao)(yao)吨位(wei)(wei)(wei)相(xiang)对较(jiao)大的(de)(de)(de)冲(chong)(chong)(chong)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang),而翻边、冲(chong)(chong)(chong)孔等(deng)工(gong)序需(xu)要(yao)(yao)(yao)吨位(wei)(wei)(wei)相(xiang)对较(jiao)小的(de)(de)(de)冲(chong)(chong)(chong)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)。所以(yi),一(yi)(yi)般情(qing)况下(xia),一(yi)(yi)条生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)(chan)线(xian)(xian)(xian)上会有两(liang)台吨位(wei)(wei)(wei)相(xiang)对较(jiao)大的(de)(de)(de)冲(chong)(chong)(chong)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)来进行拉深等(deng)工(gong)作,而剩余(yu)几个(ge)工(gong)序则(ze)需(xu)要(yao)(yao)(yao)几台吨位(wei)(wei)(wei)相(xiang)对较(jiao)小的(de)(de)(de)冲(chong)(chong)(chong)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)。这样既能满足生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)(chan)加工(gong)的(de)(de)(de)工(gong)艺(yi)要(yao)(yao)(yao)求,又充分利用了(le)设备资源,减少了(le)不(bu)(bu)(bu)必(bi)(bi)要(yao)(yao)(yao)的(de)(de)(de)浪费。
2,五金(jin)冲压件工(gong)艺复(fu)杂
车身车间(jian)需要(yao)的(de)(de)(de)各类五(wu)金(jin)冲(chong)压(ya)件(jian),除部分外购的(de)(de)(de)半成(cheng)品外,都(dou)是由(you)冲(chong)压(ya)车间(jian)进行(xing)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)(chan)的(de)(de)(de)。每(mei)一(yi)(yi)个(ge)五(wu)金(jin)冲(chong)压(ya)件(jian)的(de)(de)(de)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)(chan)一(yi)(yi)般要(yao)经过道工(gong)(gong)序(xu)(xu)(xu)的(de)(de)(de)加(jia)工(gong)(gong),主要(yao)的(de)(de)(de)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)(chan)工(gong)(gong)序(xu)(xu)(xu)有开(kai)卷落(luo)料(liao)(liao)、拉伸、整形、切边(bian)、冲(chong)孔(kong)、翻边(bian)等。其(qi)中,开(kai)卷落(luo)料(liao)(liao)是在进行(xing)冲(chong)压(ya)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)(chan)之(zhi)前将板料(liao)(liao)放在落(luo)料(liao)(liao)机上,将其(qi)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)为(wei)适(shi)合冲(chong)压(ya)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)(chan)的(de)(de)(de)几何形状。不(bu)同(tong)(tong)的(de)(de)(de)冲(chong)压(ya)件(jian)需要(yao)不(bu)同(tong)(tong)的(de)(de)(de)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)(chan)工(gong)(gong)序(xu)(xu)(xu),而(er)不(bu)同(tong)(tong)的(de)(de)(de)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)(chan)工(gong)(gong)序(xu)(xu)(xu)则需要(yao)更换不(bu)同(tong)(tong)的(de)(de)(de)模具(ju)进行(xing)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)。由(you)于每(mei)个(ge)五(wu)金(jin)冲(chong)压(ya)件(jian)都(dou)有固定的(de)(de)(de)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)(chan)工(gong)(gong)艺路线,所以生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)(chan)五(wu)金(jin)冲(chong)压(ya)件(jian)复(fu)杂的(de)(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)艺路线导致了安排(pai)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)(chan)的(de)(de)(de)难度(du)。
3,两端同时(shi)进行的生(sheng)产线
根据冲压线(xian)的(de)生产工艺要求,在(zai)为(wei)每道工序安排不(bu)同吨位(wei)(wei)的(de)冲床时,一般按照从两端到中间分(fen)别(bie)安排高中低吨位(wei)(wei)的(de)顺(shun)序布局。这样双向生产就能(neng)大大提高冲压车间的(de)生产效率和冲床的(de)利用率,从而降低生产成(cheng)本。成(cheng)本的(de)一个巨大的(de)浪费。
4,分(fen)批(pi)轮番生产
冲压车间在生产五金冲压件时,不是一次只生产一种产品,也不是一次将本周期内计划生产的冲压件全部生产完,而是在考虑生产换模时间、板材切割数量以及生产经济性的基础上,采用分批轮番生产。分批轮番生产是指将生产计划周期内安排生产的五金冲压件按照车身车间的需求分为若干批次,每一批次一天最多生产一批,最终完成计划周期内的数量。分批轮番生产的优点是既不会使单批五金冲压件的生产时间过长,影响其他五金冲压件的生产,继而导致下游车间的使用,又能减少生产成本。
冲压车间加工
5,生产(chan)批量的变化约束
冲(chong)压(ya)车(che)间(jian)(jian)的(de)(de)(de)生(sheng)产(chan)(chan)计划是由车(che)身车(che)间(jian)(jian)确(que)(que)定(ding)(ding)需要(yao)的(de)(de)(de)冲(chong)压(ya)件种类、数量(liang)以及该冲(chong)压(ya)件在冲(chong)压(ya)车(che)间(jian)(jian)的(de)(de)(de)库存(cun)情况决定(ding)(ding)的(de)(de)(de)。但是在五金冲(chong)压(ya)件的(de)(de)(de)生(sheng)产(chan)(chan)过程(cheng)中,会存(cun)在许(xu)多(duo)不(bu)确(que)(que)定(ding)(ding)的(de)(de)(de)因素,如(ru)原材(cai)料(liao)短缺、车(che)身车(che)间(jian)(jian)需求发生(sheng)变化、冲(chong)床、模(mo)具等出(chu)现故(gu)障等,使(shi)得生(sheng)产(chan)(chan)批(pi)量(liang)发生(sheng)变化。但是考虑到(dao)生(sheng)产(chan)(chan)批(pi)量(liang)太小(xiao)会导致换模(mo)次数增加,而生(sheng)产(chan)(chan)批(pi)量(liang)太大会导致成(cheng)品件库存(cun)堆积,这都会使(shi)得生(sheng)产(chan)(chan)成(cheng)本增加,所以要(yao)给生(sheng)产(chan)(chan)批(pi)量(liang)的(de)(de)(de)变化确(que)(que)定(ding)(ding)一个较为(wei)合理的(de)(de)(de)范(fan)围。
6,设(she)备能力约束
由于五金(jin)冲(chong)(chong)压(ya)件的生产工(gong)(gong)艺各不相同,而且(qie)每个生产工(gong)(gong)艺所需的冲(chong)(chong)床的吨位也不相同,所以在(zai)生产加工(gong)(gong)时必须要做到工(gong)(gong)件的工(gong)(gong)序在(zai)合适的机床上进行加工(gong)(gong)。
7,有(you)运输时间的(de)柔(rou)性生产(chan)
冲(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)压(ya)车间(jian)(jian)进(jin)行生产(chan)(chan)时(shi)(shi)(shi),五金(jin)冲(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)压(ya)件从第一道(dao)工(gong)(gong)(gong)序上线,一直到最后(hou)一道(dao)工(gong)(gong)(gong)序加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)完(wan)成(cheng)才能使(shi)五金(jin)冲(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)压(ya)件下(xia)线,将质量合格的(de)(de)成(cheng)品件放(fang)入仓库。当五金(jin)冲(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)压(ya)件的(de)(de)某道(dao)工(gong)(gong)(gong)序在(zai)(zai)冲(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)床上进(jin)行冲(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)压(ya)后(hou),如(ru)果(guo)下(xia)道(dao)工(gong)(gong)(gong)序的(de)(de)生产(chan)(chan)工(gong)(gong)(gong)艺不发(fa)生变(bian)化,则(ze)仍在(zai)(zai)该压(ya)力机上进(jin)行加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong),此(ci)时(shi)(shi)(shi)将完(wan)成(cheng)第一道(dao)工(gong)(gong)(gong)序的(de)(de)半成(cheng)品在(zai)(zai)该冲(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)床上进(jin)行第二道(dao)工(gong)(gong)(gong)序,不存在(zai)(zai)运(yun)输(shu)时(shi)(shi)(shi)间(jian)(jian)。如(ru)果(guo)下(xia)道(dao)工(gong)(gong)(gong)序的(de)(de)生产(chan)(chan)工(gong)(gong)(gong)艺发(fa)生变(bian)化,则(ze)需要(yao)将五金(jin)冲(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)压(ya)件转(zhuan)移到下(xia)一台冲(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)床上进(jin)行加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong),或者(zhe)放(fang)在(zai)(zai)传(chuan)输(shu)带上等(deng)待(dai)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)。由(you)于两(liang)道(dao)工(gong)(gong)(gong)序之间(jian)(jian)存在(zai)(zai)距离(li),所(suo)以(yi)就(jiu)会产(chan)(chan)生运(yun)输(shu)时(shi)(shi)(shi)间(jian)(jian),而且运(yun)输(shu)时(shi)(shi)(shi)间(jian)(jian)是由(you)两(liang)道(dao)工(gong)(gong)(gong)序间(jian)(jian)的(de)(de)距离(li)决定的(de)(de)。所(suo)以(yi),在(zai)(zai)生产(chan)(chan)时(shi)(shi)(shi)需要(yao)的(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)序越多,所(suo)占用的(de)(de)运(yun)输(shu)时(shi)(shi)(shi)间(jian)(jian)就(jiu)越长。而运(yun)输(shu)时(shi)(shi)(shi)间(jian)(jian)却(que)比冲(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)压(ya)时(shi)(shi)(shi)间(jian)(jian)大的(de)(de)多,所(suo)以(yi)不能忽略(lve)生产(chan)(chan)过(guo)程(cheng)中的(de)(de)运(yun)输(shu)转(zhuan)移时(shi)(shi)(shi)间(jian)(jian)。
综上(shang)所述,冲压(ya)车(che)间(jian)存在(zai)的(de)(de)这些特(te)点导致了它的(de)(de)生(sheng)产(chan)(chan)(chan)节拍不能与其他三大(da)工(gong)艺车(che)间(jian)保持一致。虽然车(che)身(shen)车(che)间(jian)提出生(sheng)产(chan)(chan)(chan)要(yao)求,但冲压(ya)车(che)间(jian)仍需根据自身(shen)条件制(zhi)定生(sheng)产(chan)(chan)(chan)计划。这使得冲压(ya)车(che)间(jian)的(de)(de)生(sheng)产(chan)(chan)(chan)计划和生(sheng)产(chan)(chan)(chan)调度更加困难。
 

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